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CPU knowledge - Power Management

CPU power management is a technique used to reduce the power consumption of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) in order to extend its battery life, reduce heat generation, and improve performance.

There are several approaches to CPU power management, including:
 
  1. Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS): This technique adjusts the voltage and frequency of the CPU based on its workload. The CPU runs at a high frequency and voltage when it is under heavy load, and at a lower frequency and voltage when it is idle. This can significantly reduce power consumption and improve performance.
  2. Power-aware scheduling: This technique assigns tasks to the CPU based on their power requirements. Tasks that require a lot of power are assigned to the CPU when it is running at its highest frequency, while tasks that require less power are assigned to the CPU when it is running at a lower frequency.
  3. C-states and P-states: These are the different power management states of a CPU. C-states represent different levels of power consumption, with C0 being the highest and C6 being the lowest. P-states represent different performance levels, with P0 being the highest and Pn being the lowest. By adjusting the CPU's C-state and P-state, the operating system can control its power consumption and performance.

Thermal management: This technique is used to manage the temperature of the CPU. If the CPU overheats, it can reduce its performance and stability, so it is important to keep its temperature within acceptable limits. Thermal management techniques include active cooling (e.g. fans) and passive cooling (e.g. heat sinks).

CPU power management is an important aspect of modern computing, as it can greatly impact battery life, performance, and overall system stability. It is typically managed by the operating system and its power management framework, but can also be controlled by the user or by system administrators.

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