Placeholder Introduction to x86 Embedded Motherboard | SINSMART

Introduction to x86 Embedded Motherboard

X86 embedded motherboard is a kind of embedded motherboard. Its main features are small size and stable parameters. It can also be divided into multiple categories, which correspond to different scenarios and functional requirements. Therefore, we need to distinguish them in actual screening. . Let's get to know the difference of X86 embedded motherboard together.

1. What is an x86 embedded motherboard and how to choose it

It is the motherboard of the industrial computer, the size is very small, generally the CPU and the display chip are directly integrated on the motherboard, it is not for ordinary computer users, it will only be installed on some industrial computers, such as ATM machines, self-service terminal inquiry machines wait. As for how to choose non-existence, most people can't use it.

Embedded microcomputer industrial control technology is a very economical and practical automation technology that has been produced and developed in computer application practice since the 20th century. It integrates electrical, mechanical, computer, communication and other technologies into one. It has the characteristics of fast speed, flexible working mode, high reliability, strong information processing ability, low cost and wide application range. It has been widely used in the industrial field, and a powerful 32-bit embedded microprocessor is used to replace the 8-bit single-chip microcomputer.

2. Classification of embedded motherboards

The embedded motherboard is generally understood as the motherboard embedded in the device for control and data processing, that is, the brain of the device. Embedded into the device, of course, there will be relatively strict requirements on the size and power consumption of the motherboard (the heat dissipation problem of the embedded motherboard). Therefore, generally speaking, embedded motherboards will have the characteristics of small size, high integration, and low power consumption. There are generally two types of embedded motherboards: X86-based embedded motherboards and RISC-based ARM embedded motherboards (by ARM The company authorizes production, and each chip manufacturer has its own special functions). Embedded ARM boards are generally onboard CPUs, but motherboards based on x86 CPUs are not necessarily.

There are two major systems in the standard embedded system architecture, and the so-called RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer, Reduced Instruction Set Computer) processor currently occupies the dominant position. The camp of the RISC system is very extensive, from ARM, MIPS, PowerPC, ARC, Tensilica, etc., all belong to the category of RISC processors. However, although these processors also belong to the RISC system, they are different in the design of the instruction set and the structure of the processing unit, so they are completely incompatible with each other. The software developed on a specific platform cannot be directly used by another hardware platform. Instead, it must be recompiled.

The second is the CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer, Complex Instruction Set Computer) processor system. The Intel X86 processor we know belongs to the CISC system. The CISC system is actually a very low-efficiency system, and its instruction set structure is burdened with too much. The burden, greedy for everything, leads to a great increase in the complexity of the chip structure. Most of the X86 processors used in embedded systems in the past are old-generation products. For example, Pentium3 processors that have withdrawn from the personal computer market a few years ago can still be seen in industrial computers. Since the performance-to-power ratio of this generation of products can be said to be the sweet spot of the past X86 system, and it has been verified by the market for a long time and has high stability, it is often used in applications that do not require high performance but require high stability. Such as industrial computer equipment and other products.

3. Information about the X86 motherboard

Generally speaking, there are the following types:

Common 3.5-inch boards, PC104 boards, MINI-ITX, PICO-ITX, NANO-ITX, ETX, 1.8 inch Femto-ITX, etc. are all embedded board types.

Usually on the motherboard will have:

VGA interface (some embedded motherboards will have DVI, HMD, LVDS/TTL and other display interfaces, LVDS/TTL is used to connect to the LCD display; motherboards above the 945 chipset can also support asynchronous dual display), USB interface (low-end Generally, the motherboard can only be connected to the storage and use the U disk, mainly depends on whether there is a driver with USB equipment in the system), keyboard/mouse, parallel port, serial port (usually with multiple serial ports, and many devices are controlled and communicated through the serial port. ), IDE interface (high-end motherboards generally have SATA interface), network port, GPIO port, etc.

Usually also have a function expansion interface such as: PC104, PCI104, MINI-PCI and similar expansion interfaces, storage expansion interface such as: CF card interface (low-end motherboard will also have DOC interface).

The volume of the 3.5 inch embedded motherboard series is only equivalent to the size of a 3-inch hard disk. (There are low-end motherboards with onboard CPUs, and there are also non-board ones; motherboards generally support Windows systems, so performance is generally better than PC104 motherboards High, the common PC104 motherboards are generally DOS; some motherboards not only have a CPU but also onboard memory, 128/256 have it, it is indeed ALL-IN-ONE.)

PC104 motherboards (mainboards generally have onboard CPU, onboard memory, and onboard electronic disks) are very common, and there are two specifications: X86 and ARM. Many manufacturers of X86-based PC104 motherboards make them, basically they are low-end DOS systems, but there are exceptions, some manufacturers can use above PM1GHZ, and of course the price is super expensive. Like other motherboards, PC104 embedded motherboard is embedded in the equipment for control, so it can be used in many industries. For example, medical equipment such as monitors and blood analyzers used in hospitals, as well as locomotive control (a large company in Zhuzhou is a case). So not only for the military industry.

The MINI-ITX motherboard is a specification created by VIA. The size is 17CM*17CM. It has a high degree of integration and low cost. It is mostly used in commercial terminals, such as financial POS, KIOSK, etc. The more popular is the MINI motherboard based on the INTEL ATOM processor. Of course, many of them are commercial computer boards made by commercial manufacturers. The price is very good, usually around 500 yuan (1.6GHZ motherboard 945 chipset, not much introduction here. up.)

PICO-ITX motherboard, in 2007, VIA released the world's smallest commercial board type motherboard EPIA? Pico-ITX, the size is only 10 cm x 7.2 cm. To bring the x86 architecture to embedded systems that were previously impossible due to space constraints, the VIA EPIA® Pico-ITX provides an innovative platform alternative to other standard embedded motherboards or x86 system-on-modules. The size of the main board is small, only the most basic PC functions are retained, the expansion is not large, and it is a portable or mobile device!

NANO-ITX is a highly integrated native X86 embedded platform with a size of only 12 cm x 12 cm, which is 50% smaller than the Mini-ITX board.

ETX is the abbreviation of EmbeddedTechnology eXtended (embedded technology extension), which is a new standard for industrial SOM (system on module) applications, and its overall size is 114mm x 95mm. The ETX module consists of two parts: one is the ETX CPU module, and the other is the ETX custom carrier board.

Note: COM Express is a computer-on-module standard defined by the International Industrial Electrical Association (PICMG). It is a computer-on-module standard jointly formulated by several major embedded industrial computer manufacturers. Similar standards include ETX, XTX, and Qseven. It is a highly integrated single-board computer, especially suitable for implementing custom industrial computer solutions. It is suitable for use when standard single-board computers are not suitable due to structure or lack of scalability. It is abandoned in the COM Express standard The previous low-speed PCI, IDE signal, is a new high-speed computer interface-based standard, PCI Express, Serial ATA, Gigabit Ethernet port, SDVO and USB3.0 will be supported.

The above SINSMART has introduced in detail the introduction of X86 embedded motherboards, the classification of embedded motherboards, and the relevant information of X86 motherboards. Through the understanding of the above knowledge, we know that the X86 embedded motherboard is a product widely used in the field of industrial production. It has stable parameters, simple design, flexible processing methods and high cost performance. Excellent product with word of mouth and quality.

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